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Prusa was the first name of city founded by Bithyni and people from Prusias in 3 century B.C. The exact discovery of the first settlement neart he city centre dated 2700-2500 B.C. Thracians, Thyni and Bithyni people escaping from the assaults of Ibkit from Thrace to this region settled there in 1200 B.C.

Therefore, the name of the region is recorded as Bithynia in written records. Our city which was gained by Turks in the period of Orhan Ruler, served as a Capital city for the Otoman Empire.

             There is no structure that remained from the period of Rome and Byzantine periods in Bursa till the present day. It is thought that the walls surrounding the old city was first constructed by Bithyni and used in the periods of Rome, Byzantine and Ottomans after repairment.

Bursa is a lively commercial city which made great progress compared to the other cities in the first 200 years period of Otoman Empire, it was decorated with architecture and it became the centre of the science world with its well-known madrasahs of its period. Hüdavendigar Complex, contruction started in the period of I.Murad, Yıldırım Complex constructed by I. Beyazıd, Yeşil Complex, contruction started in the period of I.Mehmed (Çelebi) and completed in the period of II. Murad are the big complexes that affected the spatial development of the city and they are not collapsed till now.

The importance of industry increased in the city in which the planning works were started with the republic period and population and urban development of the city underwent a change at a fast pace. The geographical position, rise of agricultural, commercial and industrial potential of the city preserves the attraction of the city in every period.

The city faced with the danger of wearing out of the historical, cultural and natural values since 1960s by the fast process of urbanization because of its location the spectcular and generous nature.

Historical Artifacts

Bursa which is one of the most important centres after İstanbul in terms of the touristic potential is spectacular with the abundance of its historical artifacts. Bursa and İznik are decorated with unique artifacts of early Christianity and Otoman periods. Uludag Ski Centre which is the centre of winter tourism of Turkey is in 40 minutes distance to Bursa and it has the all opportunities of the winter tourism. The coasts of Marmara Sea are holiday resort that all of Turkey prefer for long years. Uludag National Park is the ideal place for excursion, camping and trek.

          Uludag booms offers its magical beauties for people who go on trip with their private cars and jeep safari. The natural beauties of Bursa districts, waterfall, caves and authentic Otoman villages are among its many places that should be viewed. Bursa thermal spirings are the health centres used since Roman period.

           Çekirge vicinity is the centre of thermal springs in Bursa. The thermal springs are at premium in every period of the year in the majority of Bursa districts.

İznik and Uluabat (Apolyont) lakes are the ideal places for swimming, cano and surfing for water sports. In order to know Bursa, at least two days accomodation in the city is needed. To know the natural beauties of the city completely depends on one’s wish. It is needed to spare a day for İznik which was one of the important centres of the First and Middle Ages.

Bursa has the accomodation facilities which appeal to all tastes and they are managed by people who explore all richness and feel proud to host people of Turkey and World with its well-known hospitality.

 

Emir Sultan Mosque and Tomb

Emir Sultan Mosque was constructed by the daughter of Yıldırım Bayezid, Hundi Fatma Khatun for the memory of her husband Emir Sultan probably in the reign of Çelebi Sultan Mehmed (1366 - 1429).

It is located in the east of Bursa, near Emir Sultan cemetery among the cypress and plane trees. While the mosque was single domed, the yard and three domed portico were added in 1507. The wide yard is entered through the door between two columns after climbing the ladders in the west. There are water tank with a fountain in the middle, the mosque in the South, tomb and wooden rooms in the west. The yard is surrounded by wooden portico. The mosque has a single dome located on octagonal balance wheel. There are one each minaret of cut stone in the corners of the north facade. Its altar was made of İznik pottery in XVII. century. Emir Sultan was born in Buhara.

He is known as the most important ecclesiastic EsSeyyidŞemsüddinMehmed bin Aliyyül Buhari of the establishment period of Otoman Empire (lived in the periods of I. Beyazıt, Çelebi Mehmet, 2. Murat periods) He migrated to Bursa in 1391 and married the daughter of Yıldırım Bayezıd Hundi Khatun. He died because of plague in 1429. There is nothing left from the tomb that Hundi Khatun had it constructed. Sultan Abdülaziz had the current tomb constructed in 1868. In Emir Sultan tomb, there are the graveyards of Emir Sultan, his wife Hundi Khatun and their two daughters and son Emir Ali. It is planned octagonal and entered into from the door in the east. The ground of the tomb is below the level of the yard.

 

Yeşil Türbe (Green Tomb)

It was constructed by the son of Yıldırım Beyazid, Çelebi Sultan Mehmet in 1421. It is architect is Hacı (Pilgrim) İvaz Pahsa. The structure which has become the symbol of Bursa has a location that it can be viewed from everywhere in the city. I. Mehmet Çelebi had it constructed in his life time and passed away after 40 days. There are 8 sarcophaguses in total belonging to Çelebi Sultan and his sons’ Sehzade Mustafa, Mahmut and Yusuf and his daughters Selcuk Khatun, Sitti Khatun, Ayşe Khatun and her nanny Daya Khatun.

The tomb, which seems like one storey when viewed from external perspective, is actually two storeys with the hall where sarcophaguses are located and the barrel voulted sepulchre under the hall. The external walls are coated with turqoise tiles. The internal part of the tomb, sarcophaguses, altar, front-entrance door and facade coatings are also made of tile. Its southward altar is a work of art. The tiles here are the masterpieces of İznik pottery.

In the travel writings of Evliya Çelebi, the information about the tomb is included. However, the subject related to the tomb is discussed in terms of the life of entombed Çelebi Sultan Mehmet Khan and special information about its architecture is not included. In addition to this, it is known that the structure was called as green imaret at that time from the text.

 ‘He died in 824. He reigned for seven years, eleven months and twelve days. He was 38 years old when he died. His sepulchre is under the ornamental dome located in the kiblah direction of the bright mosque in the social complex known as green imaret.’ (Basri Öcalan, 2008)

Since it is covered with greenish tiles, the name of Green Tomb was given to the tomb by public. Portal was damaged severely in the earthquake of 1855 and it was transformed into its current state by smearing it with khorasan mortar. It is embroided in various color and patterns in the technique of silvery with right and left altars, shoe cabinets, epitaph of the tomb and half dome with 13 segments. Door wings purled with rumi motif, palmette and rosette pattens as embroidery are demonstrable with their all spectacularity. The door which is a work of art was made by son of Tabrizi Ahmed, Ali. A big dome covered with lead located on coated high balacing wheel covers its octagonal body. When you enter the inside of the structure, it gives such a feeling that one feels in the heaven of the tiles. Walls are surrounded with two curbs till the height of 2,94 m and they are covered with hexagonal turqoise tiles. There are large medallions among them. The tomb has the most magnificient tiled altar which survives till the present day. It is one of the masterpiece of the the art of the ornamentation. It resembles to the altar of Green Mosque with its grooved ornament columns, three lined stalactite, rumi motif palmettes, curved branch motif, bold feuilleton and its pinnacle. The sarcophagus of Çelebi Sultan Mehmet standing there with its peculiar dignity, which was decorated with tile, is located there. There is an epitaph of him written in relief bright thuluth on it. There are sacophaguses belonging to his sons Mustafa and Mahmud in the south of it. The one in the north of it belongs to his son Yusuf.

The ones behind the platform belongs to daughter of Çelebi Mehmet Selçuk Khatun’s relief epitaphed sarcophagus, his daughter Sitti Khatun (Safiye)’s sarcophagus covered with hexagonal and triangle tiles and dark blue patterned on white ground and the sarcohaguses of Ayşe Khatun and her nanny Daya Khatun. Octagonal prisma body of tomb positioned in a 328 meter square prolongs from the ground to the downwards and they consist the burial chamber. Burial chamber covered with barrel voult is seperated into five seperate sections with walls.

 

Osmangazi Tomb

Osman Ghazi said his son Orhan Bey that “My son, when I die, bury me under the silvered dome” by pointing the domed structure in the city during the siege of Bursa. This domed structure located in the entrance of Tophane Park at the left belonged to the chapel of Mesiahs. After the conquest of Bursa, the chapel was transformed into mosque and Osman Ghazi was buried there. The inside of the chapel which belongs to the segment of Saint Elias Monastery, was seperated with double small columns next to the walls at the width of 8,3 m and it has half round nieched, octagonal plan. It is known that this chapel was constructed in XI. Century and its form bear significant resemblance to the examples started to be applied from the date of Roman Empire. The graves buried into the narthex segment of the chapel remain uncovered now. The tomb ruined in 1855 earthquake was constructed by Sultan Abdülaziz in 1863 by being faithfull to its previous plan. The tomb has the octagonal plan covered with dome. Tomb is entered by passing through the wooden entrance in the North. Pearl inlaid wooden sacophagus in the middle belongs to Osman Ghazi (1258-1326). There is the sarcoghaguses of his son Alaaddin Bey, there is the sarcophagus of son of Hüdavendigar, Savcı Bey near it, the sarcophagus of son of Aspurça Khatun İbrahim Bey and also there are twelve sarcophaguses that it is not known whom they belong to. Since a very big drum and rosary, sent to Osman Bey by Sultan of Konya Alladdin in the tomb, are exhibited there, it is named as Davullu (Davud) monastery colloquially. They were turned into ashes during a fire that occured there. The tomb is adorned in the form of mansion halls; there are cloth curtains on the windows. A small altar is seen in the segment constructed in the style of French architecture. Window guards are made of cast-iron.

 

 

Orhangazi Tomb

It is in the right of the Tophane park entrance. Saint Elias monastery, which was the metropolitan monastery of the city before the conquest of Bursa, was constructed in XI. Century. The church consists of a middle nave and two subsidiary naves. There is a dome in the middle which the four columns made of marble carries. The inside of it is coated with gray marble. There are three windows seperated columns made of gray marble in abscissa. There were four ladders in front of this segment. There were six pieces ophite marble columns upward in the entry segment. The ground of it is consisted of porphry, decoration made of small mosaics in other colors, round entractea and straight marble plates as an alternative of mosaic upholstery whose traces are also seen now. This structure, where Orhan Ghazi was buried, was damaged in a great fire in November 1863 and it was repaired. However, the majority of it was ruined in the eartquake in 1855. It was re-constructed by Sultan Abdulaziz by being faithful to its previous form in 1863. The tomb is square planned. There are three each windows in every facade of it.

The middle window in the south facade was transformed into a door. There was a porch in front of the entrance door in the past. It is seperated with four columns in the middle, they are connected with cincture and the dome is placed on it. The side parts of it are covered with barrel voult. The internal walls are painted with albarium whitewash. The plain adorments in the shape of gablet is seen on the upper side of Windows. The sarcophagus in the middle belongs to Orhan Ghazi. Its surroundings are made of cast brass balustraded. There are the sarcophaguses of son of Cem Sultan, Abdullah, Sehzade Korkud in the right, his wife Nilüfer Khatun, his son Kasım, his daughter Fatma and son of Yıldırım Bayezıd, Musa Çelebi and there are other fourteen sarcophaguses that it is not known whom they belong to.

 

 Koza Inn

It is in a broad area between Ulucami (Mosque) and Orhan Mosque. II. Bayezıd had it constructed by with the aim of generating income for his mosque and madrasah in İstanbul in 1492. The architect of the inn is Abdül-ula bin PuladSah. It is two storeyed. There are 95 rooms in total, 50 rooms in the upper floor and 45 rooms in the ground floor. The portal in the north is made of big stone relief and it has a magnificient view. There is a door opened southward, the broad door opened to the door added in the yard and there is also a door opened to the Orhan Mosque from there. There is a small mosque in the centre of the broad yard in the internal part of the inn. The small mosque has eight facades; it’s placed on the pillar in the corners and in the middle. Its segment in the down is in the form of water tank with a fountain. It is the centre of famous Bursa sericulture today.

 

Pirinç Inn

II. Bayezid had Pirinç Inn constructed in order to generate income for his charitable institutions in İstanbul in 1508. The architects of Pirinç Inn are Yakup Shah bin Sultan Shah and Ali bin Abdullah. Construction officiers are Ecebey bin Abdullah and Nazır Muhiddin. There are 38 rooms in the ground floor and 48 rooms in the upper floor and the traces of hexadecagon water tank with a fountain are still seen today. Today the ground floor is used as a cafe and the upper floor is not used for any any purposes.

 

Geyve Inn

It is constructed by Haji İvaz Pasha to generate income for Yeşil (Green) Mosque in XV. Centuries and given as a gift to Çelebi Mehmet. The inn is in Demirkapı bazaar in Bursa. It was called as Lonca (guild) Inn in past. The inn, which is two storeys, has 26 rooms in the ground floor and it has 30 rooms in the upper floor.There are two entrance doors in its four facades. The entrance door in the west is barrel voulted and the two side of it is arched and barrel vaulted. The inn is constructed with bricks and ruble stone and it is spiked overhang. Its pillars and cincture are made of bricks. The rooms are covered with circular vault.

Ulu Camii (Mosque)

It is the most monumental and the most crowded mosque. Sultan Yıldırım Bayezıd had it constructed 1398-1400s after he won the war of Niğbolu. The mosque is covered with 20 domes placed on pedantives, thick walls and cinctures connected to 12 massive stowage pillars. The upper part of the dome in the middle part is glassed. There are 16 cornered marble water tanks with fountains under it. The square planned mosque is approximately at the dimension of 5000 meter square. It was taken by force when a woman did not want to sell her house during the confiscation of the structures where the mosque was going to be built. It is said that since the prayer is not performed on the place taken without consent, the water tank with a fountain was built on the parts where the house of that woman was located. Its minbar is a masterpiece of the woodworking. It is adorned with carving relief, geometric, star, nail heads and rosettes. The portal is a master piece on its own. It is completed in the years of 1399-1400. Its artist is Mehmed bin Abdülaziz Dakıva. The gathering place of muezzin which is placed on elegant nut columns was constructed on 1549. Its altar is eight lines stalactited. Ayatul-Kursi around the hour glass is written with thuluth. In addition kufic Al-Ikhlas is written. The altar was completed in 1571. With its small insert boards finishing cut with rumi motif and palmettes, blustrade systems with geometric examples, the epitaph in the front facade and reticulated circlet, the minbar is the masterpiece of the transition from Seljukian style to Otoman style. The other inscriptions and metal paintings are made by Mehmed Usta (Artist) in 1904. There were three doors of the mosque when it was first constructed, then Hünkar Mahfili door was added in 1740. The two of the doors are new. The wallnut door which is consisted of the hexagons and which is the resultant of the circular trays decorated by stars is as old as the mosque. The pedestal made of round marbles placed on the single column was constructed in 1815. The facades are consisted of two each windows at the bottom and the top in relieving arches.

All of the facades are made of the cut stone. There are one each minarets whose base is made of marble and bodies lay with bricks in the corners of the north facade of the mosque. There are double ladders in the minarets of the west. One can go up to the roof with the aid of it. The mosque was burned by Mongol Sheikh Emir Bedrüddin in 1403 and during the Bursa siege of Karamanoglu Mehmed Bey in 1403. It was damaged in the great earthquake in 1 March 1855 and during the fire in 1889.

Minaret balconies are the same in both of the minarets and they are adorned with tegular muqarnas. When the leaded cones were destroyed in the fire in 1889, the current throattled stone cones were constructed. Ulu Cami (Mosque) is one of the oldest mosques of the TurkIslam world. In the inscription on the entrance door of the minbar, it is written with gild in Otoman Turkish, “It is constructed by Yıldırım Beyazıt Khan in hijri 804 (1402 anno domini).

 

 Castle of Bursa

The castle was started to be built in the Brithyni and it was subjected to various repairment when needed by Roman, Byzantine and Otoman Empires later. The majority of cyclopean stones in the city walls are columns belonging to the Roman period, parts of tombs, oblation funerary stele, sculpture bases and honour epitaphs. They densify in the east of the citadel door. Only the city walls in the south were strengthened by double wall and five cornered bearings. Bursa was won with a war against Byzantine in 1326 and its city walls were backed with three cornered bearings by Orhan Ghazi. There are remnants of big bearings; one of them is with cylinder body and the other two is with three corners between Çakır Ağa Hamamı (Turkish bath) and Tophane. Hisar Kapı (Citadel Gate) located among them was ruined in the earthquake occured in 1855. The eastward walls served as a basis for the garden walls of the house. Round cinctures and loopholes are seen at the southward city walls towards Yıldız Kahve (Cafe).  Kaplıca Kapı (Thermal Gate) is located in front of the cafe. The walls which are in the condition of ruined walls are connected to the Zindan Kapı (Dungeon Gate). The cornered bearing near Zindan Kapı (Dungeon Gate) was constructed by Çelebi Sultan Mehmet in 1418. The city walls which seem relatively strong from Zindan Kapı (Dungeon Gate) to Uftade are connected to Pınarbaşı Gate and from there it is connected to Yer Gate near Uftade and they are connected again across Çakır Aga Turkish Bath. Since the cut stone segments of the city walls paralel to each others, are removed, the only segments made of ruble stone and laid with mortar of sand and lime have survived. The front city walls between Pınarbaşı Gate and Zindan Gate are lost among the houses. As to the other remnants of the city walls, the destruction was conducted with the aim of making entrance doors and holes to the houses in the section.

 

Abdal Bridge

Abdal Bridge is a historical bridge connecting Acemler and Hürriyet quarters on Nilüfer Brook. It is also known as Acemler Bridge. It was built by a merchant named as Abdal Çelebi. According to the Bursa Annual (1906), the two ends of this bridge were under the soil and it was 12 arched. The bridge is at the height of 64 m and at the width of 4.75 m. Its middle part is a little bit higher than the level of the road and it is lancet arched. There is an altar nieche in the north of the bridge made of köfeki stone and there are flood splitters on its pillars. This bridge was repaired by Highway Comission in 1971. The bridge is closed to the vehicle traffic in present day. The stream bed of the bridge was re-arranged within the scope of Nilüfer Valley Project.

 

Irgandı Bridge

Irgandı Bridge is the bridge where craftsman perform their traditional handcraft in Bursa. It was constructed by son of Irgandılı Ali, Haji Muslihiddin in 1442. It was damaged in Great Bursa Earthquake in 1854. It was bombarded by Greek army in Independence War. Irgandı Bridge was renovated by Osmangazi Municipality in 2004 and put into service.

There are three bridges with bazaars similar to Irgandi Bridge in the world. They are Osma Bridge in Lovech, Bulgaria, PonteVecchio Bridge in Florence, Italy and Rialto Bridge in Venice.

Uludağ

It is in the 32 kilometer south of Bursa and it is in distance of 40 minutes to Bursa by highway. Uludag is known as Olympos Misios in ancient period imbeded in mythology as the place where the gods watched the Trojan War. It is the highest mountain of the West Anatolia with its 2543 meter peak. It is announced as the National Park with its exceptional natural structure and with the richess of its flora and fauna in 1961. It is the most important winter sports and winter tourism centre of Turkey. The competence of its ski facilities and its accomodation opportunities makes Uludağ an indispensable holiday resort. Camping, trek, and picnic site for one day can be done there in summers therefore Uludağ is an attractive holiday resort for each season. Uludağ has the season of ski between the dates of 20 December-20 March for 120 days/year period. One can arrive to Uludağ National Park entrance door (Karabelen) from Bursa by 22 km asphalt road.

One can also go to hotel regions and ski centre by 10 km asphalt+parquet road. In addition, one can go to Uludağ National Park Sarıalan camp and area of utilization from Bursa by telpherage in 20 minutes.

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